The debate between PostgreSQL vs MySQL has served food for thought and fueled an age-old debate for DevOps users. Building scalable, stable, and customizable databases requires foresight and knowledge of the two most successful and widely adopted SQL options ever.
Both these SQL languages have their respective pros and cons as highly versatile, open-source database servers. However, to opt for the right SQL option, it’s essential to pit PostgreSQL vs MySQL and decide on the clear winner.
A comparative study of the two systems allows us to pontificate on their applications in modern SDLCs.
Learning and practicing PostgreSQL is synonymous with Structured Query Language (SQL). The ORDBMS language was launched 30 years ago for commercial and in-house enterprise software development.
Ever since the system has been a pall-bearer for SQL-compliant database technology. On the other end, PostgreSQL is highly extensible and compliant with Object-RDBMS concepts such as table linking and synchronous-asynchronous delivery.
SQL handles various data types, irrespective of their structure; which ranges from:
· Semi-structured, and
PostgreSQL brings some proprietary RDBMS solutions and features that augment its performance and versatility. PostgreSQL is mature enough to handle large, complex queries and is easy to customize as per your immediate needs.
Its client-server database model is exceptionally resilient and easy to commandeer with a CLI. Postgres’s versatility has got it adopted in FinTech, analytics, and of course, standard, dynamic web portal, and application development.
The further addition of a SQL Interpreter as a language in the 90s helped expand its functionalities. Postgres’ long-winded existence has espoused a sea of documentation and support material to help you take your SQL learning forward. There are several Postgres extensions available for real-time incorporation into backend codebases.
Pros of PostgreSQL
1. It is highly capable of multitasking
2. Used extensively by eminent corps such as Yahoo, Facebook, and Apple for their DBMS requirements
3. Extensive library support for DBMS operations
4. Offers analytical functions
5. Highly programmable and provides supports for third-party tooling
6. Built-in JSON support is performant
Cons of PostgreSQL
1. Interoperability issues, especially if you run the same codebase with different versions of PostgreSQL, on different machines
2. Horizontal scalability is difficult with PostgreSQL
3. Workability is impeded when operating on modern file systems, e.g., raw audio/video.
4. Difficult to operate locally
5. JSON data types require expert query handling capabilities
MySQL has been the preferred SQL alternative for developers and businesses that require relational DBMSs. MySQL was built to ensure query language programming remains fast, customizable, and developer-friendly.
The database language has steadily competed with PostgreSQL since the former’s inception. MySQL is compatible with the LAMP stack suite of applications.
MySQL has evolved over the past 26 years of its existence. Over the years, it’s supported Machine Language based automation, which simplifies database operations.
As a general-purpose RDBMS, MySQL can be scaled up to support various types of web services and applications. This has allowed modern businesses to adopt MySQL for API–driven web software, real-time applications, etc.
MySQL caters to services that render real-time analytics for multi-client systems. MySQL’s performance further outshines projects with Online Analytical Processing or OLA and Online Transaction processing, i.e., OLTP.
Oracle, the MySQL source code owner, has launched MySQL compatible data integrator, middleware, data recovery, and security solutions.
This language is better at handling structured types of data. MySQL also offers premium-grade database security. Hence, you will find it running under the hood of some of your favorite services and brands, such as Twitter, GitHub, Google, Flickr, WeChat, Youtube, etc.
Pros of MySQL
1. A high-speed transactional processing system
2. High-grade security and stability that guarantees high uptime for digital products
3. Immensely easy to learn (extensive documentation, guidance, support)
4. Supports Common Table Expressions just like PostgreSQL
5. Adaptable for both small-scale and large-scale enterprise and commercial applications while maintaining compatibility with a broad array of programming languages
6. Highly customizable so that it works with a diverse spectrum of infrastructure configurations
7. In-built geospatial data types and functional support for geographic data mapping
Cons of MySQL
1. Still lacks documentation for some essential utilities, such as data replication operations
2. Manual migrations are safer than automated migrations
3. The non-relational DBMS module scope, a legacy feature addition to RDBMSs these days, is not on par with the RDBMS capabilities
4. Poor performance scalability and high processor requirements
5. Joining capabilities demand further fine-tuning
6. Has no analytical functions
PostgreSQL vs MySQL: Comparison and Contrast of Attributes
|GOVERNANCE MODEL||Open-source license; source code is held by the PostgreSQL Development Group||GNU license facilitates open-source code. It is currently owned by Oracle Corp, with premium versions boasting extended features|
|ARCHITECTURE||Postgres’ object-relational database and mapping features allow us to handle complex data types, which work on OOP concepts It supports materialized database views, triggers, and stored procedures Postgres’ uses standard SQL triggers, statements, and functions for operations||MySQL has 16 different storage engines in comparison to the one, ACID-compliant engine in PostgreSQL It supports multithreading for multiple connections, without impacting memory performance It supports prominent triggers, statements, and statements using functions|
|SQL COMPLIANCE||It’s SQL compliant and meets nearly all 170 of the SQL compliance diktats. However, it still offers extended non-RDBMS/non-SQL support It follows standard SQL storage procedures.||MySQL is more compliant than PostgreSQL as it meets a small scope of NoSQL featuresextension as well It follows standard SQL storage procedures|
|PLATFORM SUPPORT||Supports a wide variety of platforms such as Windows, Mac, Linux, Solaris, etc. Postgres’ support extends to proprietary OSs from HP and Unix.||MySQL also supports Windows, Mac, Linux, Solaris, as well as FreeBSD.|
|COMMON ACCESS METHODS||All standards are supported||Same level support for JDBC, ODBC, and ADO.NET.|
|INDEXES||Supports Hash, B-Tree, Partial, and Expression indexes||Supports Hash, B-Tree, and R-Tree indexes|
|REPLICATION||Allows master-slave replication, and other replication types that are added by integrating third-party libraries||Allows both master-master and master-slave replication|
|PERFORMANCE||Exclusively used in DBMS requirements where high read/write speeds are crucial||Exclusively used in web-centric DBMS requirements, with transactional requirements|
|CLOUD-READINESS||PostgreSQL has been updated in recent years to support cloud integration||It is cloud-adaptive and quite easy to integrate with most commercial, premium cloud systems and platforms|
|SECURITY||Strong security, along with native SSL support SELinux policies enhance security with SE-PostgreSQL||In-built security features make it extremely resilient against modern penetration techniques, allowing MySQL to be adopted by brands that are household names Access Control Lists (ACL) are used for connections and queries.|
|MVCC FEATURES||Introduced the world to MVCC||Offers robust multi-version concurrency control|
|CRITICAL ADVANTAGE||Greater maturity with age, more library, and features extensions, open-source in the true sense. Out-of-the-box ACID compliant, high concurrency, and better non-RDBMS support Catalog-driven, which allows us to define indexes, data types, and functional languages Large-size DBMS program development||Also offers an excellent grade of ACID compliance Small size DBMS program development for low-requirement memory usage andInnoDB engine integration paves the way to excellent MVCC features and ACID compliance It has excellent server optimization commands|
|COMMUNITY SUPPORT||Highly committed support community that helps extend PostgreSQL features; Postgres’ evolution has also been rapid in the last decade or so to extend support for up-and-coming technologies.||Also boasts of a dedicated support community, however, its primary updates are carried out by Oracle.|
PostgreSQL vs MySQL: Best use cases for DBMS requirements
· Ideal for enterprise-scale DBMS requirements
· Ideally for SQL veterans
· Better scope of vertical scalability
· Suitable for projects with a low tooling budget
· Useful for non-web oriented, offline COTS software development
· BI, data analytics, and data warehousing are some of PostgreSQL’s best applications
· Web-based projects with SQL compliant requirements
· Suitable for teams with minimal SQL knowledge using simple MySQL syntax
· Better scope of horizontal scalability
· IDeal for projects that can scale budget with an increase in requirements, for premium service packages
· Useful for emerging tech
· Any kind of Web software with domain/tech-specific integrations, as well as offline application with different
How does Kloudio help?
When comparing PostgreSQL vs MySQL, both are extremely capable of supporting scenario-specific requirements. Better knowledge of their capabilities can help decide on the right option.
Selecting the right type of database service goes a long way in rendering quality software services, web-based or otherwise.
Kloudio, as a data efficient organization, can help you integrate SQL and PostgreSQL with Google Sheets, Excel and other relevant data sources. Each integration is seamless and will give you excellent reporting opportunities.
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